Man Arrested for Possession Surprised to Find State Didn’t Legalize Marijuana

Ignorance of the law — and election news — wasn’t a valid excuse for an aging Arizona toker arrested this week in Golden Valley.

After allegedly resisting arrest, Lon Victor Post, 54, told deputies early Wednesday morning that he thought the state had legalized marijuana, according to the Mohave County Sheriff’s Office. Deputies took him to jail anyway.

Possession of any amount of marijuana remains a felony in Arizona after voters rejected Prop 205 in November by a ratio of about 52 percent to 48 percent. Perhaps Post was confused by the fact that roughly 100 miles to the west and north of him, thanks to successful legalization elections in California and Nevada, adults 21 and older now have the freedom to use marijuana without legal penalty. Maine and Massachusetts also legalized weed for all adults, making Arizona the only one of five states that turned down the opportunity.

The deputies noticed he was having trouble standing upright as he turned down the music and chatted with them. They also noticed a baggie of pot sticking out of his shirt pocket and soon determined that he wasn’t one of the roughly 100,000 Arizonans registered under the state’s medical-marijuana program. But Post, apparently thinking he was being hassled unfairly, “jerked away” as the deputies tried to take him into custody, Carter writes.

Post pulled away a second time, seemed to square up for a fight, and took a menacing step forward. Deputies hit him with a Taser blast, which calmed him down. He then asked why he was being arrested.

“Further conversations with Post, he said that he thought marijuana was legal,” Carter writes. “The deputy advised Post that marijuana is illegal without a prescription and medical-marijuana card.”

That last part isn’t quite right: Qualified patients need to obtain a recommendation, not a federally regulated prescription, in order to register for a card.

Deputies booked him on suspicion of resisting arrest, possession of marijuana, and possession of drug paraphernalia — all felonies.

Had Post been savvier, he could have obtained a card easily and possibly avoided the possession and paraphernalia charges.

But even under the voter-approved 2010 medical-marijuana law, smoking in public remains illegal.

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New Groups of Prior Sex Offenders Tagged for Lifetime Supervision and Monitoring

In a new law that took effect January 1, 2017, around a dozen different types of sex offenders are now required to be supervised by the State Board of Probation and Parole for the rest of their natural lives.  Along with the lifetime supervision, they are also subject to mandatory electronic monitoring through the use of an ankle bracelet, at the expense of the prior sex offender.  Adding additional fuel to the inevitable legal battle regarding the Constitutionality of the new bill, the state legislature made the law retroactive to August 28, 2006.  What this means is that anyone who plead guilty to the roughly 12 types of sex crimes, even all the way back in 2006, now suddenly have this new obligation regardless of how well they did on probation or how productive and law abiding they have been in life following their arrest.  Many of these crimes that require the lifetime registry and electronic monitor are non-contact offenses.

Understandably, sex offenders are not a group of people who are going to garner a lot of sympathy.  However, this new bill seems far over-reaching even in today’s society which treats sex offenses as a modern day scarlet letter.  The new law, RSMo. 217.735, includes offenses such as sexual misconduct involving a child.  Although titles of all sex offenses sound incredibly dangerous to most, sexual misconduct involving a child could include behavior such as urinating in public when a person less than 15 accidentally observes the act.  It is hard to imagine a scenario in which that crime should lead to lifetime supervision and lifetime electronic ankle monitor.

This bill is highly likely to be challenged in short order.  The Missouri Constitution forbids laws that ex post facto in nature, meaning laws that require a new obligation based on a prior act.  Appellate Courts across Missouri and across the country have made exceptions in the case of sex crimes, calling the new obligations civil in nature, rather than punitive.  Either way, this new bill is certain to be appealed an the Missouri Supreme Court is likely going to have to settle the debate as to whether or not these new requirements are Constitutional.

Teen Driving Curfews Could Cut Crime, But At What Cost?

Male teen laughing and driving car with two other laughing passengers

Research out of the University of Texas at Dallas say that teen driving curfews can not only curb car crashes, but they could also reduce juvenile crime. That said, should be really we limiting individual freedoms in order potentially reduce crime?

Before we delve into the ethics of the curfew, let’s take a look at the data. For their study, researchers at the University of Texas at Dallas analyzed national FBI data from 1995 to 2011 involving teenage drivers and drivers with an imposed curfew. According to researchers, arrests of teens fell between 4 and 6 percent in states that placed a driving curfew on new and inexperienced drivers. In the strictest states, arrests were down between 5 and 8 percent.

Other findings from the study include:

  • The largest declines in arrests were in states that had graduated license programs (GDLs) in place the longest.
  • The biggest drops in arrests were from crimes like murder or manslaughter (11 percent), larceny (5 percent) and aggravated assault (4 percent).

Researchers say GDL programs and driving restrictions have been shown to reduce the risk of a crash, but this was the first study to examine how these restrictions affect youth crime.

“Being able to drive or having friends who can drive is the difference between going out and staying home on a Saturday night,” said study author Monica Deza, an assistant professor of economics. “It seemed intuitive to us that having a curfew on driving hours affected the probability that teenagers would get themselves into trouble.”

Researchers stopped short of saying the study proves a cause-and-effect link, rather, they just noted that there was an association between teen driving curfews and reduced juvenile crime rates.

Balancing Restrictions and Freedoms

Everyone knows that getting your license is seen as one of the biggest steps towards adulthood a teen can make, but each state handles the provisional license differently. Some states don’t let new drivers hit the road after midnight or before 5 a.m., while other states restrict cell phone privileges while in the car.

The issue arises when we take the association at face value and jump to the notion that there should be a widespread driving curfew to reduce teen crime. While that may be true, there would also be a reduction in crime if we had a mandatory curfew that required all adults to be home by 9 p.m. We can’t use the guise of safety as a blanket rule to inhibit personal freedoms. Ben Franklin said so himself when he wrote “They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety.”

We can go back and forth arguing whether or not driving at night is an “essential liberty,” but it speaks to the larger idea that we can’t just restrict personal freedoms in order to feel a little safer. Some checks and balances certainly need to be put in place for new drivers, but I’m not certain a nationwide curfew is the optimal route.

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Researching Your Attorney – Why Credentials Matter

Deciding which attorney to hire is perhaps the biggest decision people face when defending themselves against criminal prosecution.  Hiring the right attorney may seem like a daunting task given the number of attorneys out there.  Many lawyers claim to be criminal defense attorneys, but also claim to practice family law, personal injury, estates and trusts, and virtually every other kind of law there is.  This is a red herring for, “I am not an expert in any one area, so I’ll try to do a little bit of everything”.  Other attorneys claim to do only criminal defense, but in all candor, don’t have a clue what they are doing and offer a cheap price tag to offset their deficiencies.  Hiring an attorney obviously falls into the “buyer beware” category, but there are things you can do to ensure that you’re hiring a criminal defense attorney who is competent, experienced, and will give you the strong defense for which you’re entitled.

RESEARCH YOUR ATTORNEY.  We can’t say it enough.  Just because someone is listed online claiming to be a criminal defense attorney by no means ensures that they know what they are doing in the courtroom.  Even more concerning are the lawyers who send you solicitation letters in the mail.  Someone who simply claims to do criminal defense is not the same as someone who does criminal defense well.  The key is to research the attorney before hiring and to look for certain credentials to ensure successful, competent representation.

CREDENTIALS TO LOOK FOR: There are many groups and so-called “awards” that attorneys can join or win by simply paying money.  Realistically, those are not awards at all.  Awards that are most credible are those that are peer nominated (ie. attorneys nominating attorneys for awards), followed by independent third party research, and then voted on by credentialed panels.  Awards that fall into this category include Superlawyers, Missouri Lawyers Weekly, Martindale-Hubbell, and Top 100 Trial Lawyers.

Additionally, certification and expertise in a specific area of law is a huge plus.  Although the Missouri Bar does not recognize outside certification organizations, and offer no specialty certification of its own, the National Board of Trial Advocacy offers certification in specialized areas of practice that are recognized by the American Bar Association.  For example, Criminal Trial Practice is a specialty area of certification that the NBTA offers and is recognized by the American Bar Association.  In order to be certified by NBTA to ensure specialized knowledge and experience in Criminal Trial Practice, an attorney must go through a rigorous application process, demonstrate adequate experience across dozens of key practice areas, and finally complete a bar style exam solely in criminal law.  It is a scary thought, but many people who practice criminal defense in Missouri likely could not pass this exam.  That is why certification by your attorney is something to look for to ensure competency and specialized knowledge to protect you against government prosecution.

IS THE ATTORNEY DEDICATED TO CRIMINAL DEFENSE?  Finally, one key in hiring a good criminal defense lawyer is to look for whether the attorney you hire is dedicated to his or her profession of criminal defense and to his or her clients.  Many defense attorneys tout the fact that they used to be prosecutors.  I’m not so sure this is a positive.  You want an attorney who is going to be loyal to you without the concern of them playing both sides.  Additionally, you want to see your attorney have specialized education in criminal defense and specific involvement in criminal defense only groups, such as the Missouri Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers and the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers.  These organizations provide criminal defense specific training throughout the country to better equip defense lawyers for the rigors of providing the best representation possible for their clients.

Attorney Adam Woody has the among the most combined experience, credentials, and courtroom success of any criminal defense attorney in Southwest, Missouri.  He has never practiced any area of law other than criminal defense, and has been perfecting his craft for over a decade.  He is a graduate of the University of Missouri-Columbia School of Law, as well as the National Criminal Defense College in Macon, Georgia.  He is a general member of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, and the treasurer of the Missouri Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, an organization for which he is on track to be president of in two years.  He has been named to the Superlawyers Rising Stars list in 2016, he has won the Missouri Lawyers Weekly Up and Coming Attorney award in 2011, and he has been named a Top 100 Trial Lawyer in the country in 2013 through 2016.  He is board certified in the area of Criminal Trial Practice by the National Board of Trial Advocacy, and is the only attorney in Southwest, Missouri to achieve such specialty certification.  He has achieved an AV rating by the lawyer rating resource, Martindale-Hubbell, which indicates a Preeminent rating, the highest rating available, based on peer and client reviews and independent panelist research.  He is a member of the invitation only group, National College for DUI Defense, and he has received the same certification in standardized field sobriety testing as police officers receive in their academy.  Adam has achieved hundreds of dismissals for clients accused of crimes, as well as dozens of not guilty verdicts, including for the most egregious of charges such as first degree murder.  He is a criminal defense attorney who is dedicated to that profession alone, and he is ready to step into the courtroom and provide you the best defense available in the region.

When researching an attorney to determine whether you will get the most experienced, most competent, and most prepared defense available, look no further than attorney Adam Woody.  He’s ready to fight the battle with you as your advocate in the courtroom.

Understanding Vandalism Charges

The word vandalism spray painted on a cement wall

If you or a loved one is charged with vandalism in Missouri, whether it be tagging or graffiti or defacing property, the result can be serious charges and severe penalties. If damage resulting from the vandalism is bad enough, you can face steep fines, a criminal record, jail time and even time in state prison.

Many do not realize that parents of minors are financially responsible for the damage that their children cause.  Parents of minors charged with vandalism or tagging need to hire an experienced criminal defense lawyer to handle their case.

Types of Vandalism
  • Carving into a piece of glass or wood such as a table, chair, desk or bench with a knife or any other tool
  • Breaking windows or doors
  • Tagging with markers or paint
  • Damaging somebody else’s property including mailboxes, cars, plants, lawn or other personal property with intent
Difference Between Misdemeanor & Felony Vandalism

For a person to be found guilty of vandalism prosecutors must prove that they maliciously intended to damage or deface personal property of another person.

Charges of Misdemeanor or Felony depend of the severity of the damage caused. Typically damage under the amount of $750 is considered a misdemeanor while damage of $750 and over is considered a felony.

Acts of vandalism will automatically be felonies if they are proved to be “hate crimes.”

An experienced criminal defense attorney can help you understand your case as well as help you get the best possible result in court. In some cases, your case may even be dropped if there is not enough evidence.

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The Future is Here: Breathalyzer Skin Patches

We all know that if someone is arrested on suspicion of drunk driving, they will be required to take a breathalyzer test, usually later at the police station. And this test result will be the primary evidence used against him in a drunk driving case.

The first problem with this is that the amount of alcohol in the blood is constantly changing — either rising due to absorption from recent drinking or, more likely, falling due to metabolism of the alcohol.

The second problem is that it is only illegal to have a .08% blood-alcohol concentration at the time of driving — not later at the police station.  And this breath test may not be given for an hour or two after the driving has ended — particularly in accident cases, where the police may not arrive for some time.  So the prosecution has to try to estimate what the blood-alcohol level was when the suspect was driving based upon the later test.

The third problem is that because of this, for the test results to be admissible as evidence in court they have to have been obtained within a certain period of time — in California, for example, within three hours.

But what if there was a breath-testing device which could record what the blood-alcohol level was at the time the suspect is actually driving?
Flexible Wearable Electronic Skin Patch Offers New Way to Monitor Alcohol Levels

San Diego, CA.  Aug. 2 – Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed a flexible wearable sensor that can accurately measure a person’s blood alcohol level from sweat and transmit the data wirelessly to a laptop, smartphone or other mobile device. The device can be worn on the skin and could be used by doctors and police officers for continuous, non-invasive and real-time monitoring of blood alcohol content.

The device consists of a temporary tattoo — which sticks to the skin, induces sweat and electrochemically detects the alcohol level — and a portable flexible electronic circuit board, which is connected to the tattoo by a magnet and can communicate the information to a mobile device via Bluetooth…
Clearly, the government would be very interested in requiring anyone convicted of DUI to wear such a patch for the probationary period (commonly three years).

 

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Missouri in the Middle When it Comes to DUI Strictness

blue united states map with borders around each state

 

Many consequences could come out of being accused of drunk driving. Multiple factors impact what specific things a person who has had DUI charges brought against them could face if a conviction is ultimately reached in their case. This is because each state has its own particular laws regarding drunk driving, including what actions can be taken against those charged with DUI and those convicted of DUI.

Among the ways states vary when it comes to DUI law is in the strictness of the laws they have. A recent set of state rankings put Missouri solidly in the middle when it comes to overall DUI strictness. In these rankings, done by WalletHub, Missouri was in a three-way tie for the No. 25 spot. The states that Missouri tied with were New Hampshire and South Carolina.

While the rankings found Missouri to be middle-of-the-road overall when it comes to how strict its DUI laws are, there was one general class of DUI-related things that the report rated Missouri to be very strict on. This was DUI prevention.

DUI prevention was one of the two main categories of metrics that were used for determining the overall rankings. The other was criminal penalties. Metrics which fell into the prevention category included a state’s laws and practices on things like: alcohol abuse assessment/treatment, ignition interlock devices, enforcement tactics and license suspension.

When it came to the prevention category, Missouri ranked 7th in the nation in strictness. In comparison, it ranked 39th in the criminal penalties category.

As a note, what sort of DUI prevention measures they could be subject to after being charged with or convicted of a drunk driving crime can have very big impacts on a person, just as the potential criminal fines and jail sentences they could face can.

Experienced Missouri DUI lawyers can assist individuals accused of drunk driving in the state with taking the unique aspects of Missouri DUI law (including its laws related to drunk driving prevention) into account in their defense efforts.

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Robot, Do You Know Why I Stopped You?

Why Police Might Pull Over Self Driving Cars

We may not be too many years away from the point where self-driving cars become a regular presence out on the roads. Such a shift in the type of vehicles being used would likely bring many big changes along with it. Among these changes are changes when it comes to traffic tickets.

A large portion of the typical traffic tickets currently issued are tickets for types of driving conduct (like speeding). Self-driving cars, by taking human drivers out of the equation, might take a lot of these typical reasons for police issuing traffic tickets off of the table. So, the advent of self-driving cars could perhaps bring about a big drop in many typical types of traffic tickets.

However, self-driving cars are unlikely to mean the end of traffic tickets.

For one, self-driving cars, at least in the near-term, will likely have some sort of override feature. So, traditional types of traffic tickets could still be issued for alleged traffic violations committed by human drivers when they were in an override mode and in control of the normally self-driving vehicle.

Also, not all traffic tickets are for driving conduct. For example, tickets are sometimes issued for things such as vehicle equipment problems or failing to wear a seatbelt. Many of these non-driving-conduct traffic tickets would likely remain possibilities after cars turn autonomous.

Self-driving cars could perhaps even lead to their being some new types of equipment-related traffic tickets. If self-driving cars become commonplace, it seems likely that there would be various regulations and rules put in place regarding what kinds of autonomous equipment such cars are to have and the maintenance of such equipment. One wonders if violations of such rules/requirements could become ticketable offenses.

So, while self-driving cars could end up bringing about some big changes when it comes to traffic tickets, traffic tickets are unlikely to completely disappear anytime soon as things individuals could potentially end up facing.

Experienced traffic ticket attorneys can help individuals who have been issued traffic tickets, whether for driving or non-driving conduct, with understanding what options they might have regarding fighting their ticket.

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Pot Breathalyzers are Being Tested By Law Enforcement

With the number of states that have passed recreational marijuana laws, the need to detect stoned drivers has increased. Technology companies have come to the rescue, creating devices to detect whether an individual has recently smoked or ingested marijuana. While the devices are still undergoing testing, one researcher, who happens to be a volunteer officer, has begun field testing. Like the alcohol breathalyzers that are commonplace, the marijuana breathalyzer detects the active ingredient, THC, in an individual’s breath. Based on the reading provided, an officer will be able to tell if a person has recently ingested or smoked marijuana. However, unlike alcohol, where there have been countless studies regarding the point of impairment, the research in regards to marijuana is lacking.

Why Does Law Enforcement Need a Pot Breathalyzer?

Marijuana, unlike alcohol, cannot be as accurately detected in urine, saliva, or blood tests. While it will show up in all three tests, the problem is that it can show up for days, weeks, or even months after the last consumption. The breathalyzer serves to bridge the gap in evidence an officer would need, not just to make an arrest, but also to make a court conviction more probable. The pot breathalyzer would allow officers to premise an arrest for DUI on marijuana based not only on a field sobriety test, but also on a breathalyzer reading that shows the driver has consumed marijuana within the last few hours. The device cannot detect marijuana use beyond a few hours.

When Will Device Go to Market?

While nearly half the country now allows either medical or recreational marijuana, the pot breathalyzers are not set to be publicly available for some time. The manufacturers are trying to rush the product to market, but more time is still needed. The devices still need to go through rigorous testing for accuracy, as well as the development of a standardized scale for when a person should be considered inebriated by marijuana. Just like many states have adopted the 0.08% BAC standard, a similar standard will need to be developed for marijuana before these devices can actually be effective.

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Cheating the Breathalyzer: Urban Legends

In fear of failing a breathalyzer test, many people over the years have tried and failed to successfully discover a means of being able to cheat the test. Many urban legends exist as to how one can actually consume a level of alcohol which is over the legal limit yet still pass a breathalyzer test when stopped by the cops. However, no matter how believable these “success stories” may sound, you can bet that they are actually false.

A common misconception is if the alcohol cannot be smelled from your breath, then you will not fail a breathalyzer test. This had led to people drinking alcohol which left a minimal odour on your breath or chewing gum or mints to hide the smell of alcohol in the belief that would pass should they be pulled over for a breathalyzer test. Unfortunately, the smell of alcohol on your breath will do nothing to affect the results of the test. A breathalyser will still be able to discover your blood alcohol content.

Similarly, if you think a mouthful of mouth wash or some breath spray will do the trick, think again. Most mouthwashes and breath sprays actually contain levels of alcohol so essentially, all that you will be doing is further adding to the level of alcohol in your system. Another common urban legend involves sticking pennies or one cent coins under the tongue to try and cheat a breathalyzer test. The general thought beyond this claim is that the copper in the pennies or coins can somehow counteract the presence of alcohol. This however is completely false – and in fact, U.S. one cent coins are actually largely made of zinc. In truth, you are probably just putting yourself at risk of choking on coins or absorbing dangerously high levels of zinc!

There have also been many bizarre stories about how one can successfully cheat a breathalyzer test by stuffing crazy things in your mouth. Do not even bother putting yourself through the embarassment and hassle of doing such a thing because you will undoubtedly still fail the test. Although you might provide a source of amusement for your arresting police officers! Despite what people may think, stopping off for some fast food and a coffee will not affect the results of the test either. It may satisfy your intense hunger or thirst but absorbing food or drink will not lower your breath alcohol levels.

Finally, holding your breath before taking the test or belching into the device are also believed to be “successful” ways of cheating a breathalyser test. Unfortunately guys, this is merely an urban myth. By holding your breath before the test, you could actually be even allowing further amounts of alcohol to enter your lungs which can result in a higher reading.

Do you know what the only truly successful way of a cheating a breathalyzer test is? Abstaining from alcohol before driving! Do not ever try to “guess” if you are over the legal alcohol limit to drive. If you intend on having a drink, you need to bring a personal breathalyser with you to test yourself before deciding whether to drive home. If your reading is over the limit, it is time to start flagging down a cab.

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